Interview Questions for Selenium Automation Testing

Interview Questions for Selenium Automation Testing

In this ever-evolving era of software applications, Selenium has a unique position. It is highly recommended in software testing due to its capabilities. Selenium allows the development of an efficient and reliable software application with the help of test automation. Therefore, to fulfill the increasing demand for quality software applications in less time, we require testers to have skills in automation testing. A tester with skills related to Selenium testing is best suited for the purpose. A successful journey in software development with Selenium begins by clearing up the interview process. 

The interviewer is well aware of the basics played by Selenium in the software development life cycle. Therefore, they also look for candidates with significant knowledge about the same. Through this article, we are trying to guide aspiring Selenium testers in the field of software technology. The article contains basic interview questions that can be asked during the selection process. The main aim includes covering essentials related to the Selenium framework, the complexities that arise with WebDriver, and the techniques that can help work with locators. Additionally, the article covers some frequently asked questions from advanced concepts such as the Page Object Model (POM). 

By digging into these questions, testers can exhibit mastery and gain comprehensive knowledge about Selenium’s multifaceted nature. As we heed the interview questions, we expect upcoming testers to get prepared with the answers and certainty required for the competitive scene of Selenium automation testing interviews. 

Basic Interview Questions for Selenium Automation Testing

Below are some of the interview questions for Selenium automation testing.

1. What is Selenium?

Selenium is an open-source framework utilized as a free automation testing suite of tools. Authorization isn’t required for Selenium, and it has more benefits than other testing tools. The tests can be performed in any operating system like Mac, Linux, and Windows. Selenium can also be combined with a few tools, such as TestNG in Selenium and JUnit, for overseeing test cases and creating reports. 

You can also scale your Selenium tests with cloud-based tools like LambdaTest. LambdaTest is an AI-powered test orchestration and execution platform that lets you run manual and automation testing at scale with over 3000+ real devices, browsers, and OS combinations.

It takes its testing capabilities further by providing a realistic environment for testing mobile applications on real device clouds. It means that testers can conduct tests on different devices, operating systems, and screen sizes, addressing the complexities often encountered in mobile app development.

  • Test Execution Environments: With access to over 3000 environments, LambdaTest covers various browser versions, operating systems, and mobile devices. This diverse selection allows testers and developers to validate their applications under numerous conditions, minimizing the risk of compatibility issues.
  • Collaboration and Communication: The platform also offers features promoting team collaboration. Test sessions can be easily shared, and team members can collaborate on debugging efforts. Effective communication during testing helps foster teamwork and speeds up issue resolution.
  • Detailed Reporting and Insights: LambdaTest goes beyond just running tests by generating detailed reports and insights. These reports provide visibility into the test results and performance metrics. They are invaluable for assessing application quality, identifying potential issues, and making data-driven decisions.

2. What is Selenium composed of?

Selenium is a collection of tools integrated into a software application for automation testing. It is composed of:

  • Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) is a Firefox plugin for recording and playing back. 
  • WebDriver: To work with multiple languages using a single Selenium framework, WebDriver provides the API. 
  • Grid: Selenium aims to perform automated testing, and Grid helps perform automated testing of multiple test cases simultaneously and thus saves time. 

3. What are Selenium 2.0 and Selenium 3.0?

Selenium 2.0 is the advanced version of Selenium where the Web Testing tools are combined. It means the Selenium RC and WebDriver are integrated into a single tool. 

Selenium 3.0 is the current version of Selenium with new and improved features. There are two beta versions of Selenium 3.0: Beta 1 and Beta 2. Also, the Beta 2 updates are only for Java. 

4. Explain Assertion in Selenium with its Types.

Assertion in Selenium is the point for verification. With the help of assertions, a tester ensures the current state of the software application is functioning as expected. There are three types of assertions.

  • Assert: In Selenium, “assert” alludes to using declarations to approve expected conditions amid the execution of a test script.
  • Confirm: The term “verify” is sometimes utilized to depict the process of checking or affirming the presence or visibility of components on a web page.
  • waitFor: “waitFor” alludes to presenting explicit or understood waits in Selenium to handle synchronization issues between the test script and the software application.

5. What is the use of XPath? Explain the difference between single and double slash in XPath.

The XPath in Selenium is used to identify dynamic elements present in the web pages of the software application. 

The Single Slash(/) creates absolute path expressions and starts selecting from the document node. In contrast, the Double Slash(//) creates relative path expressions and starts random selection from the document. 

Advanced Interview Questions for Selenium Automation Testing

1. What are the four parameters you have to pass in Selenium?

The four parameters you have to pass in Selenium are 

  • Host: Selenium’s “Host” parameter refers to the location or address of your Selenium Grid hub or WebDriver server. 
  •  Port Number: The port number parameter specifies the port on which the Selenium Grid hub or WebDriver server runs. 
  • URL: In Selenium, the URL parameter typically points to the application’s web address (Uniform Resource Locator) under test. 
  • Browser: Selenium’s Browser parameter refers to the type of browser you want to automate.

2. What is the difference between setSpeed() and sleep() methods?

During test execution, we sometimes need to stop selenium testing or delay it to enhance the debugging or emulate human interaction. We use setSpeed() or sleep() methods for those. 

setSpeed() method is used to stop the execution of every Selenium command for a specific duration, whereas the sleep() method lets you stop the execution of the current thread for a specified amount of time. Also, the sleep() method is exclusively used while working with Java.

3. Explain what the JUnit annotations linked with Selenium are.

The JUnits annotations associated with Selenium are:

  • @Before public void method() – Executes method() before each test. This method can prepare tests.
  • @Test public void method() – The annotation @Test indicates that this method is in the environment of the test method.
  •  @After public void method() – To execute the process before any other method, using this annotation will help. 

4. Explain what a data-driven framework and a keyword-driven framework are.

Data-driven framework: Test case logic resides within the test script, but test data is kept separately outside the test script. Test data is read from an external file (Excel file) and loaded into variables within the test script. Variables are used for both input and validation values.

Keyword-driven framework: Keyword-driven frameworks require the development of data tables and keywords independent of test automation. In keyword-driven testing, the application’s functionality under test is documented in a spreadsheet with step-by-step instructions for each test.

5. List out different types of locators.

The different types of locators are as follows:

  • Locates an element by its unique ID attribute.
  • Locates an element by its name attribute.
  • By.tagName(): Locates elements by their HTML tag name.
  • By.className(): Locates an element by its class attribute.
  • By.linkText(): Locates anchor elements (a) by the exact text of their link.
  • By.partialLinkText(): Locates anchor elements (a) by a portion of their link text.
  • By.xpath: Locates elements using XML Path Language (XPath) expressions.
  • By.cssSelector(): Locates elements using Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) selectors.

6.  Mention the challenges in Handling Ajax Calls in Selenium WebDriver?

The challenges at the time of handling Ajax calls with Selenium Webdriver are:

  • Using the Pause command to handle Ajax calls is only partially reliable. Long pause times will unduly slow down the test and increase test time. Instead, try using wait for conditions as it helps test Ajax applications.
  •  Assessing the risks that come along with a particular Ajax application is challenging. 
  • When developers have complete freedom to modify Ajax applications, the testing process becomes even more difficult.
  • AJAX applications often use different encoding or serialization techniques to send POST data, making it difficult for test tools to create automated test requests.

7. Mention in what ways you can customize the TestNG report.

The TestNG report can be customized in two ways,

  • Using ITestListener Interface: The ITestListener interface allows you to listen to various events during test execution. You can then customize test execution and report behavior accordingly.
  • Using IReporter Interface: The IReporter interface allows you to create custom reports in formats other than the standard HTML reports generated by TestNG.TestNG’s reporting process can be used to develop a report in PDF, XML, JSON, or CSV format, according to your choice.


Selenium automation testing interview questions mentioned above could be a stepping stone for entering the software testing domain. The knowledge required for the interview requires a deep knowledge ranging from basic to advanced. The basics include principle concepts such as the functionality of WebDriver and locator knowledge. Advanced topics usually deal with page object models and methodologies required for synchronization. 

The candidates who opt for Selenium as the framework for automation testing and understand its complexities give assurance about delivering efficient and robust software applications. Also, the questions about selecting suitable locators, best practices that include Page Object Models, and synchronization methodologies help select well-deserved testers who can quickly adapt to the testing environment. 

As the request for Selenium automation testers proceeds to develop, the remaining side-by-side of the most recent progressions and grasping an all-encompassing approach to automation testing is vital. The interview process provides a door to career openings and a persistent learning experience. By effectively locking in with the questions in this article, candidates can develop a strong establishment and stand out within the competitive field of Selenium automation testing. Remember, victory lies not in giving rectified answers but in illustrating a veritable enthusiasm for conveying high-quality software applications through the viable utilization of Selenium.



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